Rigoberta Menchu Tum was born on January 9, 1959, into a poor Indian family. She was a part of the Quiche branch in the Mayan culture. When she was young, Rigoberta helped her family with farm work. Sometimes she worked on the Pacific Coast without her family. Rigoberta soon became involved in her Catholic Church. It was here where she got involved in Social Reform activities.
Rigoberta was prominent in the Women’s Rights Movement when she was only a teen. Her work surprised many organizations because she was very involved at a young age. After doing time in prison, Rigoberta’s father became involved in the Committee of Peasants Union otherwise known as CUC. In 1979 Rigoberta also joined this committee. Rigoberta quickly became independent because her brother, father, and mother soon died. This caused her to be more involved in the CUC. In 1980 she was a part of a strike that her committee took part in. She argued for better work conditions for farmers on the Pacific Coast. On May 1, 1981 Rigoberta was involved in large demonstrations in the Capital. She joined the radical 31st of January Popular Front, in which her contribution consisted of educating the Indian peasant population to resist massive oppression.
In 1981 Rigoberta had to flee and go into hiding. This was because some people didn’t agree with the things that Rigoberta fought for.. In 1982 she took part in founding the Joint Opposition Body, The United Representation of the Guatemalan Opposition (RUOG). 1986, Rigoberta Menchu became a member of the National Coordinating Committee of the CUC, and the following year she performed as the narrator in a powerful film called When the Mountains Tremble. This film was about the struggles and sufferings of the Maya people. Rigobetra returned to Guatemala about 3 times to plead the cause of Indian peasants. Death threats soon forced her to leave.
Overall Rigoberta has become known for her strong voice in the fight for Indian rights and ethno-cultural reconciliation, which is having respect for the rights of people. Her work has earned her many awards including a Nobel peace prize. It’s good to know that there are women in the world that aren’t afraid to stand up for what they believe in. Rigoberta has created hope for many peasants and farmers of the Maya culture. I Applaud her for this and I believe she is a great example of a strong intelligent women.
1. Physical bullying includes any physical contact that would hurt or injure a person like hitting, kicking, punching, etc. Taking something that belongs to someone else and destroying it would also be considered a type of physical bullying. For example, if someone was walking down the street and someone came up to them and shoved them to the ground, that would be physical bullying. In elementary and middle schools, 30.5% of all bullying is physical.
2. Verbal bullying is name-calling, making offensive remarks, or joking about a person’s religion, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or the way they look. For example, if there was a group of kids who made fun of another kid because he couldn’t run as fast as everyone else, it would be an example of verbal bullying. 46.5% of all bullying in schools is the verbal type. Verbal aggression is when a bully teases someone. It can also include a bully making verbal threats of violence or aggression against someone’s personal property.
3. Indirect bullying includes spreading rumors or stories about someone, telling others about something that was told to you in private, and excluding others from groups. An example would be if you started a rumor that a boy in your class likes playing with dolls, and if the reason that you made up the story was because you thought it was funny. This would be indirect bullying. Indirect bullying accounts for 18.5% of all bullying.
4. Cyberbullying is done by sending messages, pictures, or information using electronic media, computers (email & instant messages), or cell phones (text messaging & voicemail). For instance, if you sent a picture of a snake in an email to a person because you know that they are afraid of snakes, that would be an example of cyberbullying. According to a survey done in 2003 only 4% of bullying is listed as “other types” and this would include cyberbullying. Even though this number seems small, the growth of this type of bullying is going up fast because of the spread of technology around the world.
Young bullies are usually children:
- Without adequate supervision
- Who were once victims of others bullies
- Who are without positive role models
- Who are fascinated or obsessed with video violence
- Who physical or psychological attributes allow them to dominate other children
Schools in which bullies reign will most likely:
- Be crowded
- Not have a clear and consistent policy regarding harassment or bullying
- Not have adequate adult supervision
- Not have a staff trained in identifying bullies
- Have an administrative staff overwhelmed with discipline problems
- Treat every student conflict as mutual combat
- Not take the time to track violent behavior on campus
- Not have an intervention team who can share the discipline workload
- Be unaware of vulnerable areas on campus where students can be victimized outside supervised areas.
- Trade bullies with other schools as a means of discipline.